In this place there should be small nut-bearing trees; when they are not bearing, acorns and chestnuts should be thrown inside the walls for them to glut themselves with. They are fattened in jars, which many people keep even inside the villa.
The potters make these jars in a very different form from other jars, as they run channels along the sides and make a hollow for holding the food. In such a jar acorns, walnuts, or chestnuts are placed; and when a cover is placed over the jars they grow fat in the dark. Our well-versed Merula, as he has done in other cases, will tell you of the practice followed by bee-keepers. Even if jackdaws in this respect are the same, still it is not the same case; for in one there is a fellowship in toil and in building which does not obtain in the other; in the one case there is reason and skill — it is from these that men learn to toil, to build, to store up food.
Does not the chamber in the comb have six angles, the same number as the bee has feet? The geometricians prove that this hexagon inscribed in a circular figure encloses the greatest amount of space. They seek only the pure; and hence no bee alights on a place which is befouled or one which has an evil odour, or even one which smells of sweet perfume. They are with good reason called 'the winged attendants of the Muses,' because if at any time they are scattered they are quickly brought into one place by the beating of cymbals or the clapping of hands; and as man has assigned to those divinities Helicon and Olympus, so nature has assigned to the bees the flowering untilled mountains.
On the outside of the entrance to the hive they seal up the apertures through which the air comes between the combs with a substance which the Greeks call erithace. Such crops are: the rose, wild thyme, balm, poppy, bean, lentil, pea, clover, rush, alfalfa, and especially snail-clover, which is extremely wholesome for them when they are ailing. It begins flowering at the vernal equinox and continues until the second equinox.
For this reason some bruise thyme in a mortar and soak it in lukewarm water, and with this sprinkle all the plots planted for the bees.
Some build round hives of withes for the bees to stay in, others of wood and bark, others of a hollow tree, others build of earthenware, and still others fashion them of fennel stalks, building them square, about three feet long and one foot deep, but making them narrower when there are not enough bees to fill them, so that they will not lose heart in a large empty space.
The best hives are those made of bark, and the worst those made of earthenware, because the latter are most severely affected by cold in winter and by heat in summer. Some authorities state also that, as there are three kinds of leaders among bees — the black, the red, and the striped — or as Menecrates states, two — the black and the striped — the latter is so much better that it is good practice for the keeper, when both occur in the same hive, to kill the black; for when he is with the other king he is mutinous and ruins the hive, because he either drives him out or is driven out and takes the swarm with him.
The wasp, though it has the appearance of a bee, is not a partner in its work, and frequently injures it by its sting, and so the bees keep it away. The former are smaller in size, and hairy, but are better workers. When they are not so well, the signs are that they are hairy and shaggy, as if dusted over — unless it is the working season which is pressing them; for at this time, because of the work, they get tough and thin.
As to the time, it should be in spring rather than in winter, as in winter it is difficult for them to form the habit of staying where they have been moved, and so they generally fly away. If you move them from a good situation to one where there is no suitable pasturage, they become runaways. This substance is used, and under the same name, by physicians in making poultices, c and for this reason it brings even a higher price than honey on the Via Sacra. Erithace is the name given a substance with which they fasten together the ends of the comb it is a different substance than either honey or propolis and it is in it that the force of the attraction lies.
So they smear with this substance, mixed with balm, the bough or other object on which they want the swarm to settle. It is said that they do not gather wholly from the same sources the materials which they bring in for making the four substances, propolis , erithace , comb, and honey. Sometimes what they gather is of one kind, since from the pomegranate and the asparagus they gather only food, from the olive tree wax, from the fig honey, but of a poor quality.
In this matter great care should be taken to keep the water pure, as this is an extremely important point in making good honey. So about ten pounds of ripe figs are boiled in six congii of water, and after they are boiled they are rolled into lumps and placed near the hives.
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Others pound raisins and figs together, soak them in boiled wine, and put pellets made of this mixture in a place where they can come out to feed even in winter. Those which have gone out first fly around in sight, looking back for the others, which have not yet gathered, to swarm. When they have moved into the new colony, they remain so willingly that even if you place near by the hive from which they came, still they are content rather with their new home. The signal for removing the comb is given by the following occurrences.
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Others leave more than the amount stated. Just as in tilling, those who let the ground lie fallow reap more grain from interrupted harvests, so in the matter of hives if you do not take off honey every year, or not the same amount, you will by this method have bees which are busier and more profitable. When the amount removed is large, it should not all be taken at one time or openly, for fear the bees may lose heart. If some of the comb removed contains no honey or honey that is dirty, it should be cut off with a knife. Those which often fight one another should be sprinkled with honey-water.
When this is done they not only stop fighting, but swarm over one another, licking the water; and even more so if they are sprinkled with mead, in which case the odour causes them to attach themselves more greedily, and they drink until they are stupefied. If at any time they are knocked down by a sudden rain while harvesting, or overtaken by a sudden chill before they have foreseen that this would happen though it is rarely that they are caught napping , and if, struck by the heavy rain-drops, they lie prostrate as if dead, they should be collected into a vessel and placed under cover in a warm spot; the next day, when the weather is at its best, they should be dusted with ashes made of fig wood, and heated a little more than warm.
Then they should be shaken together gently in the vessel, without being touched with the hand, and placed in the sun. There are two kinds of fish-ponds, the fresh and the salt.
The one is open to common folk, and not unprofitable, where the Nymphs furnish the water for our domestic fish; the ponds of the nobility, however, filled with sea-water, for which only Neptune can furnish the fish as well as the water, appeal to the eye more than to the purse, and exhaust the pouch of the owner rather than fill it. For in the first place they are built at great cost, and in the second place they are stocked at great cost, and in the third place they are kept up at great cost.
Who, on the other hand, who starts with one of the sea-water ponds doesn't go on to a row of them? And so he was less careful to see that a sick slave did not drink cold water than that his fish should have fresh water to drink. Then a noise on the right, and our candidate, as aedile-elect, came into the villa wearing the broad stripe. The Editor's Notes: 1 Properly "the creator. Servius on Georg. Cicero, Flac.
We have no other trace of the word. It was built on the Campus Martius, and remains still exist. The Annales Magni recited that when a statue of Horatius Cocles had been struck by lightning the Etruscan haruspices were consulted. Being hostile to Rome, they purposely gave bad advice, and on their confession were executed.
Whereupon this verse which is a translation of Hesiod, Works and Days , I. Axius seems to have entertained his guests lavishly, as Appius is still "belching" over the "hospitable" birds which his host furnished. The conversation here plays on these various meanings. Thayer's Note: An adequate general overview, with an armload of citations, is provided by the article Villa in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
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It was on the Campus Martius, and seems to have extended to the river. Juvenal, X. Cato, 89, If they ate so greedily that parts of the food fell from their beaks, it was called tripudium solistimum. Thayer's Note: In the latter work, the sacred chickens are to be found in I.
They are frequently referred to by Pliny N. Goetz proposes malthon. For these fish-ponds built out into the sea cf.
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Odes , II. The word properly means a snail-shell with spirals. Here, as Ovid, Am. As the tabula was provided with a loop or ring at the top with which to carry it cf. The circular building, tholos , referred to below, seems to have been erected in the rounded upper end of this capitulum. Various attempts have made to reconstruct the aviary described in this paragraph. The reader may be referred to an important contribution with ground-plan, translation of the passage, and commentary by A.
Van Buren and R. See also plates in editions of Gesner and Schneider, and frontispiece in translation of Storr-Best. But certainly the arrangements named below seem better suited to people than to birds. Each of its eight sides corresponded to one of the eight winds and held a picture of that wind. The water-clock was so arranged that it marked the hour, as Varro here describes, and the vane on the roof directed the pointer to the figure of the wind then blowing. Odes , III.